​Arizona Wing Chun Association

​Muk-Yan-Chong

​​​​The "Wooden Dummy" Form

Arizona Wing Chun Association

​The famed wooden dummy, called Muk-Yan-Chong, is one of – if not the – most-recognized item in the martial arts today. Even though a variety of martial arts employ a wooden dummy for training, it is usually more recognized with Wing Tsun.​​​​​

The famed wooden dummy, called Muk-Yan-Chong, is one of – if not the – most-recognized item in the martial arts today. Even though a variety of martial arts employ a wooden dummy for training, it is usually more recognized with Wing Tsun
this form centers on the delivery of focused force into the opponent at extremely close ranges. Its use revolves around the delivery of permanent (sometimes fatal) injuries
this curriculum teaches us how to seek out the arms of the opponent and to “connect a bridge”. Once we connect to the opponent, we can immediately determine where the holes in his defense are
The first form of the Wing Tsun system is called Siu-Nim-Tau. Meaning Little-Idea, this form demonstrates basic but efficient concepts that provide a logical method. Regardless of the style, all Wing Tsun/Wing Chun/Ving Tsun methods will generally begin their teachings with the Siu-Nim-Tau

​When the wooden dummy first became a martial training tool is unknown, but it is generally accepted that it originated at the Shaolin temple. The “Wooden Man Alley” is said to have been two rows of spring-loaded wooden dummies, and in order for a student-monk to reach the end, he had to endure a variety of strikes from these wooden assailants. If he made it to the end, he would then brand his arms with the styles of kung fu he trained in by grasping hot cauldrons with his forearms.

When the wooden dummy first became a martial training tool is unknown, but it is generally accepted that it originated at the Shaolin temple. The “Wooden Man Alley” is said to have been two rows of spring-loaded wooden dummies, and in order for a student-monk to reach the end, he had to endure a variety of strikes from these wooden assailants. If he made it to the end, he would then brand his arms with the styles of kung fu he trained in by grasping hot cauldrons with his forearms
Some schools teach that Biu-Tze’s “emergency” techniques were created to help you regain the centerline if you have lost it; however, this is incorrect. Why? Because we have already learned this principle in everything leading up to Biu-Tze

​Some might disagree, but I am very glad that that is no longer a requirement to excel at Wing Tsun. It's hot enough in Arizona without grasping two scalding hot cauldrons between my forearms.

Some might disagree, but I am very glad that that is no longer a requirement to excel at Wing Tsun. It's hot enough in Arizona without grasping two scaulding hot cauldrons between my forearms
Beginning with the Siu-Nim-Tau, everything we do revolves around the centerline and how important it is for effective protection and attack. The Chum-Kiu expanded this further by teaching us varying angles and how to regain the centerline so as to place us in a more efficient position. This was reinforced even further through Chi-sau and Lap-sau, for anyone that loses the centerline will immediately tell you that you are in a bad situation
Because we now know where he is, we can take advantage of it and enact our own attacks, e.g. taking the fight to him vs. waiting for him to come to us
All Wing Tsun empty-hand forms are taught in three sections to make for easier learning. For the Siu-Nim-Tau, however, its three sections have a specific purpose and stress a unique function:
Some will train the Siu-Nim-Tau as internal while others will train it as external. At the AWCA, we train Wing Tsun solely from the mindset of fighting (what many denote as external). Elements of internal training will result, such as relaxation and smooth breathing, but we do not focus on the internal aspects as some others do

​"​​Master Yip Man's era is credited with mounting the dummy on slats and taking the form of what we see today."

Using Chum-Kiu concepts, we pay particular attention to our turning and weight distribution
our focus lies in the relaxed, physical aspects of response and engagement

​A variety of shapes and sizes of dummies have been created throughout the generations, with the “live” dummy being the most prevalent (see below). Master Yip Man’s era is credited with mounting the dummy on slats and taking the form of what we see today. In times prior, though, the common method of mounting was simply sinking the dummy into the ground vs. mounting it on the wall.

A variety of shapes and sizes of dummies have been created throughout the generations, with the “live” dummy being the most prevalent (see below). Master Yip Man’s era is credited with mounting the dummy on slats and taking the form of what we see today. In times prior, though, the common method of mounting was simply sinking the dummy into the ground vs. mounting it on the wall
This knowledge of the centerline is a prerequisite for learning the Biu-Tze vs. learning how to regain it. So at the AWCA, we follow the Yip Man concept that Biu-Tze is not for recovering the centerline; instead, it is for the delivery of permanent/fatal attacking actions
Using Chum-Kiu concepts, we pay particular attention to our turning and weight distribution. If we do not turn enough, we will be exposed to the attack, whereas turning too much will over-extend ourselves. We also learn the various ranges involved with fighting because you have to adjust your range according to what the opponent is doing
Instead, our focus lies in the relaxed, physical aspects of response and engagement, learning to overcome an opponent swiftly and efficiently. Internal elements result over time but they are not our primary concern; defeating the opponent as quickly as possible is the primary goal, and utilizing the concepts found in the Siu-Nim-Tau begins that process

​Where construction itself is concerned, the dummy has a set pattern for how it is fashioned and what its use is truly for. Some feel that the dummy’s primary purpose is to condition the arms while others believe it is to mimic a person. It is true that repeated training will see many side benefits such as conditioning, timing, etc., but in my experience and as I was taught, the dummy’s primary purpose is to improve one’s structure when striking a non-moving object, increasing the coordination between upper and lower bodies (uniting the upper and lower bodies), and creating short-range burst type of power.

Where construction itself is concerned, the dummy has a set pattern for how it is fashioned and what its use is truly for. Some feel that the dummy’s primary purpose is to condition the arms while others believe it is to mimic a person. It is true that repeated training will see many side benefits such as conditioning, timing, etc., but in my experience and as I was taught, the dummy’s primary purpose is to improve one’s structure when striking a non-moving object, increasing the coordination between upper and lower bodies (uniting the upper and lower bodies), and creating short-range burst type of power
Because of the nature of this curriculum and the concepts that it represents, the Biu-Tze is never taught to anyone that has not first demonstrated an extremely strong and upright moral character. Prior to utilizing any of these movements or employing its concepts, a practitioner must already have a refined force in which his/her power can lash out with a great deal of elasticity. Even the slightest stiffness or tension will create a hole in your defense, which is why you will hear that the movements from this particular form can actually get you hurt if you try to do them without being taught how to use them
In other words, the movements by themselves mean nothing. It is the concepts behind the movements and how they are being used that creates the effectiveness of Biu-Tze
Therefore, I must caution everyone that you should never employ these movements in a real situation unless you have been properly trained by a skilled and knowledgeable teacher. Not only can you create irreparable harm to someone if used inappropriately, but you can also get fatally injured yourself without knowing the why’s behind it. This is not a game. This is real life, and it is permanent
For example, the Siu-Nim-Tau teaches basic attacks and defenses as they relate to the punch/palm striking range. In Chum-Kiu, however, we have kicks, elbows, and even grappling and takedown range. Short of ground fighting, these are four complete ranges of fighting that are addressed in Chum-Kiu training
The interesting thing about Wing Tsun is that you will find many variations. The families, lineages, and styles have particular ways to train, as well as specific modes of that training in order to cultivate what they feel are the essential elements to their preferred methods. Some are more effective than others, but on the whole, you will usually find more similarities than differences

Muk-Yan-Chong Section 1

​Section 1 begins by introducing the practitioner to an inanimate object, an object that will resist force at every turn. Because of this, we learn how to project relaxed force, a force that is devoid of rebound, or pushing us backward.

Section 1 begins by introducing the practitioner to an inanimate object, an object that will resist force at every turn. Because of this, we learn how to project relaxed force, a force that is devoid of rebound, or pushing us backward

Additionally, section 1 teaches proper footwork, body unity, and treating the body as one complete unit for creating short-range, explosive power. We learn angling, making use of the opponent’s actions via various angles, sticking to the opponent, and exploding into the opponent.

​Note: Muk-Yan-Chong section 1 video under production and coming soon. Also, many groups train one side as section 1 and the other side as section 2. However, this has never made sense to me since no other form is worked this way. A section includes one side and then the other. Therefore, at the AWCA, both sides of what many consider sections 1 and 2 are trained as section 1.

Hoi-ma

1. ​​Hoi-ma to Yee-chi-kim-yeung-ma
​Opening the Stance to Character "Two" Adduction-stance

​​​Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms.

Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Man-sau

​2. ​Man-sau
​Inquisitive-arm

​Assume a left Man-sau with the fingers as close as possible to the trunk without touching it.

Assume a left Man-sau with the fingers as close as possible to the trunk without touching it
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Chuit-kiu

​3. Chuit-kiu
​Piercing-arm

​Drive the arms at 45-degree upward angle to simulate the defense of a double neck grab. The elbows are outward just enough to deflect the dummy arms.

Drive the arms at 45-degree upward angle to simulate the defense of a double neck grab. The elbows are outward just enough to deflect the dummy arms
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Man-geng-sau

​4. Man-geng-sau
​Neck Grabbing-hand

​While simultaneously assuming a right Juk-sun-ma, the left hand grabs the inside of the dummy’s right arm while the right hand reaches around to grab the back of the dummy’s head area. 100% of the body’s weight is on the right leg and 0% on the left.

While simultaneously assuming a right Juk-sun-ma, the left hand grabs the inside of the dummy’s right arm while the right hand reaches around to grab the back of the dummy’s head area. 100% of the body’s weight is on the right leg and 0% on the left
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Noi-moon Bong-sau

​5. Noi-moon Bong-sau
​Indoor-area Wing-arm

​Remaining in a right Juk-sun-ma, the right arm transitions to Noi-moon Bong-sau against the inside of the dummy’s right arm while the left hand assumes Wu-sau. The body’s weight remains fully on the right leg.

Remaining in a right Juk-sun-ma, the right arm transitions to Noi-moon Bong-sau against the inside of the dummy’s right arm while the left hand assumes Wu-sau. The body’s weight remains fully on the right leg
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Tan-sau Gwoy-cheung

​6. T​an-sau Gwoy-cheung
​Palm Up-arm with Lying-palm

​Initiate a 45-degree Wang-bo (Side-step) with the left leg and then the right leg executes Huen-bo around the dummy’s leg. When complete, the body is in a right Juen-ma at 45-degrees with the dummy. With the step, right Noi-moon Bong-sau transitions to Tan-sau while left Wu-sau strikes with Gwoy-cheung.

Initiate a 45-degree Wang-bo (Side-step) with the left leg and then the right leg executes Huen-bo around the dummy’s leg. When complete, the body is in a right Juen-ma at 45-degrees with the dummy. With the step, right Noi-moon Bong-sau transitions to Tan-sau while left Wu-sau strikes with Gwoy-cheung
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Sheung-har Gaun-sau

​7. ​Sheung-har Gaun-sau
​High/Low Splitting Block-arms

​The right leg Huen-bo’s to the front and stops in front of the dummy’s leg. By way of adduction, the left leg is pulled forward so that the body is in a left Juk-sun-ma.

The right leg Huen-bo’s to the front and stops in front of the dummy’s leg. By way of adduction, the left leg is pulled forward so that the body is in a left Juk-sun-ma

​Simultaneously, Tan-sau/Gwoy-cheung transitions to a right low/left high Gaun-sau.

Simultaneously, Tan-sau/Gwoy-cheung transitions to a right low/left high Gaun-sau
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Kwun-sau

​8. ​Kwun-sau
​Rotating-arms/Twisting-arms

​The right leg steps to the right while the arms transition to Kwun-sau. When complete, the dummy’s leg should be centered between yours. If you turned towards the dummy and assumed Yee-chi-kim-yeung-ma, you should be centered with the dummy’s leg.

The right leg steps to the right while the arms transition to Kwun-sau. When complete, the dummy’s leg should be centered between yours. If you turned towards the dummy and assumed Yee-chi-kim-yeung-ma, you should be centered with the dummy’s leg
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Tan-sau Gwoy-cheung

​9. ​Tan-sau Gwoy-cheung

​The right leg steps 45-degrees to the dummy’s left side while the right leg Huen-bo’s around the leg and then towards the trunk. When complete, you should be in a left Juen-ma at a 45-degree angle towards the dummy.

The right leg steps 45-degrees to the dummy’s left side while the right leg Huen-bo’s around the leg and then towards the trunk. When complete, you should be in a left Juen-ma at a 45-degree angle towards the dummy

​Simultaneously, Kwun-sau transitions to left Tan-sau and right Gwoy-cheung.

Simultaneously, Kwun-sau transitions to left Tan-sau and right Gwoy-cheung
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Sheung-har Gaun-sau

​10. ​Sheung-har Gaun-sau

​The left leg Huen-bo’s to the front but now the body goes further so that if you turned to the front, you would be centered on the dummy’s leg.

The left leg Huen-bo’s to the front but now the body goes further so that if you turned to the front, you would be centered on the dummy’s leg

​Simultaneously, Tan-sau/Gwoy-cheung transitions to a left low/right high Gaun-sau.

Simultaneously, Tan-sau/Gwoy-cheung transitions to a left low/right high Gaun-sau
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Tan-sau Kau-sau

​11. ​Tan-sau Kau-sau
​Palm Up-arm with Plucking-hand

​While assuming Yee-chi-kim-yeung-ma, simultaneously transition Sheung-har Gaun-sau to left Tan-sau and right Kau-sau.

While assuming Yee-chi-kim-yeung-ma, simultaneously transition Sheung-har Gaun-sau to left Tan-sau and right Kau-sau
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Jum-sau Jing-cheung

​12. Jum-sau Jing-cheung
​Sinking-arm with Erect-palm

​Initiate left Jum-sau with right Jing-cheung.

Initiate left Jum-sau with right Jing-cheung
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms
Man-sau

​13. Man-sau

​Transition the arms to right Man-sau.

Transition the arms to right Man-sau
Stand in front of the dummy while being in punching range. Open the stance the same as with all other forms

(​Repeat steps 3-13 for the other side. When complete, you have completed section 1 of the Muk-Yan-Chong)

There are a variety of wooden dummy interpretations due to each style’s conceptual differences. Common sense dictates that the original wooden dummy form would have evolved and improved over time, but it is interesting to note that many styles resemble each other in many areas.

​For example, the first half of the dummy form is almost identical in most styles. The second half, however, is where personal interpretation has largely been introduced. Is this bad? Of course not. Personal interpretation is what makes the art so alive and formidable. It is a bit sad, though, when someone mentions that their particular method is the traditional or authentic way, and that everything else is modified. Unless someone is doing the wooden dummy form exactly as Ng Mui did it, then we are all doing a modified form, are we not? And all lineages agree that the forms have been modified and improved over the course of the generations.

For example, the first half of the dummy form is almost identical in most styles. The second half, however, is where personal interpretation has largely been introduced. Is this bad? Of course not. Personal interpretation is what makes the art so alive and formidable. It is a bit sad, though, when someone mentions that their particular method is the traditional or authentic way, and that everything else is modified. Unless someone is doing the wooden dummy form exactly as Ng Mui did it, then we are all doing a modified form, are we not? And all lineages agree that the forms have been modified and improved over the course of the generations
A practitioner can wedge into the opponent via angulation, thereby penetrating his or her defense and capitalizing on this close distance. An extremely competent Chum-Kiu is required before even thinking about learning Biu-Tze, which is why the Chum-Kiu is said to be the “bridge” between the Siu-Nim-Tau and the Biu-Tze
Section 1 of Chum-Kiu introduces a variety of concepts that deal with trapping, changing angles, using elbow attacks, and defending against multiple opponents

Drills & Applications

Section 1 begins by learning how to lower one’s center of gravity from the chest to the waist. Called Hoi-ma, or Opening the Stance, this basic but primary element is one of the reasons we can take an opponent head-on. Should too much force be encountered and we are overpowered by brute strength, the structure itself allows us to “borrow” that force and re-direct or deflect it
A variety of drills can be created exclusively from section 1. To illustrate a bit about what the Siu-Nim-Tau teaches us, let's explore a few drills that begins the foundation of Wing Tsun

​As a practitioner works through the various wooden dummy drills, you can see a variety of elements from previous training. The difference, however, is that in many cases, the angles are different. There is also a great deal of power release, footwork, and other advanced elements that many do not readily notice at first.

As a practitioner works through the various wooden dummy drills, you can see a variety of elements from previous training. The difference, however, is that in many cases, the angles are different. There is also a great deal of power release, footwork, and other advanced elements that many do not readily notice at first
It has been said that the Biu-Tze’s purpose is the employment of deadly force, and I feel that it is important to clarify this statement further
A Wing Tsun practitioner is trained in a variety of concepts to appropriately and effectively deal with either one or multiple opponents, as well as fighting in all ranges. If that is true, then why would a concept such as Biu-Tze even be necessary? What would be happening to make such a lethal form of training relevant?
There are three primary punches in Wing Tsun, with Yat-chi-chung-kuen, or Character "Sun" Thrusting punch (commonly called the Straightline punch), being the most prevalent. If you close your hand to make a vertical fist, and then look at the front of it in a mirror, it resembles the Chinese character for sun
Man-geng-sau

1. ​Man-geng-sau
​Neck Pulling-hand

​From Man-sau...

Man-geng-sau

​2. ​Man-geng-sau
​(continued)

​... ​the opponent attempts a neck grab. Using Chuit-kiu (learned during Chum-Kiu) to drive through the incoming arms...

the opponent attempts a neck grab. Using Chuit-kiu (learned during Chum-Kiu) to drive through the incoming arms
the attacker launches a Kup-jarn attack. Kup-jarn is defended with Pak-sau and Ming-tou-sau
... he comes into kick range. The defender lifts the leg directly upward vs. chambering, and...
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
Man-geng-sau

​3. ​Man-geng-sau
​(continued)

​... the hands grab the arm and the back of the head. With a forceful downward pull, Man-geng-sau pulls downward. This is followed up with an elbow, punching, etc.

... the hands grab the arm and the back of the head. With a forceful downward pull, Man-geng-sau pulls downward. This is followed up with an elbow, punching, etc
The arms are immediately changed to Tan-Chang-sau, which is a combination of Tan-sau to keep the upper pressure, and Chang-sau to strike the same place as Ming-tou-sau
... drives a solid kick into his groin. Targets can be the stomach, thigh, or knee, as well as the shin. We always want to keep our kicks low and fast so as to make them more difficult to defend. This is why some styles call Wing Tsun the “Ghost Kicking” style, because the kicks are felt before seen
The lead fist extends fully with no bend in the elbow, while the rear hand assumes Wu-sau (Guard-arm) or a fist
Ching-sun-gerk, or Front Thrusting-kick, can be employed at various heights, but its primary height is usually the waist. When you can kick with full power and at a parallel height (when your leg is parallel to the floor), then all kicks lower than that will generally see a great deal more power being released

​​A common movement throughout the first section is Noi-moon Bong-sau. This action teaches us to go from an inside line to an outside line.

A common movement throughout the first section is Noi-moon Bong-sau. This action teaches us to go from an inside line to an outside line
So what would be happening to make such a lethal form of training necessary? The answer is simple. There is no way for us to know what situation we might find ourselves in. In most cases, we will simply walk away, which is always the best course of action for any situation. Sometimes, however, that is not possible
Today’s attackers are armed cowards running in gangs. Because they have no morals or standards by which an upright human being lives, they live by a code of cowardice, arming themselves to take advantage of the weak
Lower-level kicks are usually the norm in Wing Tsun, mainly because it is more difficult for the opponent to see. And if it is harder to see, then it is harder to defend against. The problem, however, is that many practitioners do not train their full power at a parallel level, which in turn sees a great deal of power lost that they can achieve
Therefore, always train this kick in the forms to be full power and parallel to the floor
Therefore, there are times when the protection of self from literal life and death situations could become a reality. And in these cases, this is what the Biu-Tze was designed to accomplish
In addition to single opponents, Wing Tsun also includes kicking methods for dealing with multiple opponents. We do not get to pick and choose how many will attack us, so Wang-chang-gerk allows us to respond to opponents approaching from the side
Noi-moon Bong-sau to Tan-sau Gwoy-cheung

1. ​​Noi-moon Bong-sau to Tan-sau Gwoy-cheung
​Indoor-area Wing-arm to Palm Up-arm with Lying-palm

​The attacker launches a punch, which is defended with a same-side Bong-sau. Before the defender can counter, the attacker is faster and launches a punch on the other side, which is defended with the same Bong-sau. Now, however, you are on the inside vs. the outside.

The attacker launches a punch, which is defended with a same-side Bong-sau. Before the defender can counter, the attacker is faster and launches a punch on the other side, which is defended with the same Bong-sau. Now, however, you are on the inside vs. the outside
Biu-Tze-sau is also called Biu-sau or Bil-sao by some
In this drill, the practitioner is first defending against an opponent to the front when he sees another attacker coming in from the side
Noi-moon Bong-sau to Tan-sau Gwoy-cheung

​2. ​​Noi-moon Bong-sau to Tan-sau Gwoy-cheung
​(continued)

​Stepping to the side and changing Bong-sau to Tan-sau...

Stepping to the side and changing Bong-sau to Tan-sau...
Biu-Tze-sau changes to either Fook-sau or Lap-sau (both are acceptable) while the other hand explodes with Chang-sau to the underside of the attacker’s jaw
Before the attacker gets into punching range, the defender raises Lan-sau to defend the incoming punch while simultaneously raising the leg for a kick
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
Noi-moon Bong-sau to Tan-sau Gwoy-cheung

​3. ​​Noi-moon Bong-sau to Tan-sau Gwoy-cheung
​(continued)

​... the defender slams Gwoy-cheung into the attacker's ribs.

... the defender slams Gwoy-cheung into the attacker's ribs
Chang-sau changes to Lap-sau in order to hold the opponent in place – as well as pulling him in – to the other hand exploding with Shat-geng-sau to the side of the attacker’s neck
Driving squarely into the opponent’s stomach, Lan-sau maintains a bridge to defend the incoming punch. Alternatively, the kick can go into the thigh or knee vs. the stomach
The lead fist extends fully with no bend in the elbow, while the rear hand assumes Wu-sau (Guard-arm) or a fist

​In addition to concepts such as this, the wooden dummy also reinforces how important it is to give way to the explosive incoming force of an opponent. This is one of the concepts for borrowing the actions of the attacker in order to use it against him.

In addition to concepts such as this, the wooden dummy also reinforces how important it is to give way to the explosive incoming force of an opponent. This is one of the concepts for borrowing the actions of the attacker in order to use it against him

​Remember that when you have successfully bridged the gap, you are now in your preferred fighting range. If you withdraw and then try to close the gap again, there is nothing to say that this time you will not get dropped.

Remember that when you have successfully bridged the gap, you are now in your preferred fighting range. If you withdraw and then try to close the gap again, there is nothing to say that this time you will not get dropped

​Instead, take the opportunities that are presented and do not let them go.

Instead, take the opportunities that are presented and do not let them go
Equally important is the moment, which can change from situation to situation. The environment, your physical condition at that time, even your emotional state. These and many other areas all play a part in how you will fair at the time your skills are needed. And this is the mindset that a Wing Tsun practitioner will address in his or her daily training
Tan-dar, Fook-dar and Gaun-dar are some of the easier movements to integrate with Yat-chi-chung-kuen. These actions address defense against straight punches, hook punches, and low punches
Chai-sut-gerk

1. ​Chai-sut-gerk
​Knee Stamping-kick

​The opponent is making an obvious gesture that he is about to attack.

The opponent is making an obvious gesture that he is about to attack
As the attacker launches a punch, it is defended with Bong-sau
As the attacker approaches, the defender is in fist range. The lead leg, however, is also in range for a Jamming-kick/Stop-kick to the attacker’s leg
Chai-sut-gerk

​2. ​Chai-sut-gerk
​(continued)

​As the attacker drives in with his punch, the defender side steps and begins to raise the leg. As the leg is being raised.

As the attacker drives in with his punch, the defender side steps and begins to raise the leg. As the leg is being raised
Wu-sau changes to Lap-sau in order to provide a barrier for control while Bong-sau quickly swings above the attacker’s arm
As the attacker steps into range, the defender raises the lead leg and...
... the attacker launches a straight punch. The defender's Man-sau meets the attack and transitions to Tan-sau. As he turns, the other fist launches a punch...
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
Chai-sut-gerk

​3. ​Chai-sut-gerk
​(continued)

​... it immediate explodes into the knee. Depending on the distance from the leg, this kick is usually a stomping action on the top of the knee.

... it immediate explodes into the knee. Depending on the distance from the leg, this kick is usually a stomping action on the top of the knee
Zhoung-bu-pie Jum-sau crashes down on the clavicle with enough force to break it
... drills into the side of the attacker's knee. With enough speed and force, this can be a permanent and crippling attack
... the attacker launches a straight punch. The defender's Man-sau meets the attack and transitions to Tan-sau. As he turns, the other fist launches a punch...
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
During the creation of Wing Tsun, it was not so uncommon that a situation could turn into a life-or-death event. The founders of the system realized that there were, in fact, times when a practitioner would simply have no choice but to inflict fatal injury in order to survive
Ergo, the Biu-Tze
There are many practitioners around the world that periodically face these situations in today’s society, so the Biu-Tze continues to be a reliable response. These events involve not only multiple attackers, but multiple armed attackers. It must be understood, however, that the Biu-Tze is never taught to anyone who hasn’t first demonstrated an extremely strong moral character. It said that some practitioners have gone their entire lives and never learned this form or the concepts that it teaches
In addition to kicks, brutal elbow attacks are a mainstay of Chum-Kiu. Pie-jarn, or Horizontal Hacking-elbow, is one of the most frequently used of all Wing Tsun elbow attacks
While attacks like this may seem brutal, remember that Wing Tsun is strictly for fighting vs. rules-based sports. It is not flashy, showy, and there are no rules. You have been attacked, you are fighting for your life, and all targets are an option
A variety of today’s exercise routines include boxing, kickboxing, and other similar actions. These programs will usually tell you that in addition to improving your fitness, you are also creating a valuable self-defense skill set, something that you could use in real life for protection if you had to
I am not going to say that you are not learning something about self-defense, because clearly you are. The body is replicating the actions of movements you would use for defending yourself, and these can be valuable elements if you find yourself in a self-defense situation
I have also read/heard stories of some who were able to protect themselves only with the skills they learned from their kickboxing-oriented fitness programs. Whether true or not, I can see the relevance and have no reason to doubt it
Fighting and exercising are two different things. Yes, you are improving your fitness, and yes, you are learning the mechanics of basic self-defense actions. Remember, though, that real self-defense and exercising are not the same thing. There is more to reliable self-defense than merely going through the motions, and that is a primary concept we learn in the Chum-Kiu
Please do not create a false sense of security by relying on your fitness program to teach you about real protection. I personally love fitness programs that include boxing and/or kickboxing because they generate more movement that relates better to overall conditioning. However, these fitness programs will not stop a 250-lb. enraged attacker bent on drilling you into the ground
But Wing Tsun will
Many have asked how Wing Tsun might respond to other martial arts, so below is an example of this. Note, however, that the key word here is might
In a real fight, anything can and usually does happen. I have a love of all martial arts and this is not to degrade these other methods. On the contrary, it is merely a look at possible Wing Tsun responses to the more commonly-used actions of a few different fighting methods
Gaun-dar, or Splitting Block-arm with Simultaneous Attack, is like an axe splitting wood, hence the name. Wing Tsun does not have blocks; instead, our blocks are actually attacks to the limb they are meeting. In this way, we counter-attack while defending
After learning the first section of Siu-Nim-Tau and exploring the variety of concepts, we can take these movements and blend them together to create our own drills/scenarios as necessary. This teaches us not to be stagnant or always training the same drills over and over without change
To begin this process, we work what is called the Lead-arm Defense Drill. This drill is just one of many variations that frees us up by changing from side-to-side while simultaneously working the arms. We also learn more control of the lower body and how to pivot ourselves in order to borrow the force of the attacker
An excellent real-world drill that you can work with your training partner right now is called the Pak-sau drill. This drill teaches coordination, learning to make contact, feeling what that pressure is about, and how to better protect your centerline. It also puts into motion the concept of working both hands at the same time so that you can enact simultaneous attack and defense
The Pak-sau drill is so important to Wing Tsun that our entire Lat-sau fighting curriculum begins with it. From driving in, down, around, adding kicks, elbows, knees, and any other action you can think, Pak-sau easily and quickly transitions to effective and efficient counter-attacks

Concepts & Theories

​Short-range Power

The Chum-Kiu revolves around seeking out the opponent, and once found, we sink or leak through his/her defenses in order to attack. The most relevant areas of this training includes concepts for angling and turning in order to make the most of the space we have, which in turn allows us to address multiple opponents
Wing Tsun is concept-based vs. application-based, meaning that the movements themselves can only take you so far. They are excellent movements, for certain; however, they are still only mechanical actions. What really makes Wing Tsun so effective is how and why the movements are applied

​Muk-Yan-Chong training teaches a great deal about short-range power and how to create this power for very close ranges. Wing Tsun favors close ranges such as fist, palm and elbow/knee range, so the wooden dummy capitalizes on this by teaching us to explode into our opponent.

Muk-Yan-Chong training teaches a great deal about short-range power and how to create this power for very close ranges. Wing Tsun favors close ranges such as fist, palm and elbow/knee range, so the wooden dummy capitalizes on this by teaching us to explode into our opponent
The term emergency is, for some, a confusing issue. Some feel that it relates to the situation of if we lose our centerline, we are in danger of losing the fight. Therefore we must employ emergency techniques in order to regain it. Others, however, feel that the term emergency relates to a life-or-death situation, such as the premise of us being unarmed and our attackers are armed
The Chum-Kiu is also where Wing Tsun’s three primary kicking methods – Ching-sun-gerk, Wang-chang-gerk and Che-chang-gerk – are introduced. With these three kicks, we now learn to respond to leg attacks with our own legs vs. using the arms. An interesting facet, however, is that even with the kicks, we also learn that in many cases, responding to the opponent’s kick is sometimes not even necessary
For example, think about how many martial arts are in existence. Now, think about how many ways the human body can move. With the hundreds of systems and styles in the world, a person can still only do so many things
The AWCA continues to teach what was passed to us, and we were taught that the term emergency relates to the latter
For example, the Siu-Nim-Tau and Chum-Kiu curriculums have expounded heavily on the concept of the centerline. In order to even begin learning the Biu-Tze, a great deal of competence must already be present. And part of this competence is that the centerline is paramount to everything we do

​"​​The ​​continuous release of force into this inanimate object also teaches us to overcome rebound."

Using Chum-Kiu concepts, we pay particular attention to our turning and weight distribution
our focus lies in the relaxed, physical aspects of response and engagement

​The continuous release of force into this inanimate object also teaches us to overcome rebound. When you strike the dummy, only two things can happen: either the dummy moves, or you move. If the dummy is mounted on a wall, then naturally it is not going to go anywhere. Therefore, the power into the dummy will bounce back (rebound) into you, and now it is you that moves.

The continuous release of force into this inanimate object also teaches us to overcome rebound. When you strike the dummy, only two things can happen: either the dummy moves, or you move. If the dummy is mounted on a wall, then naturally it is not going to go anywhere. Therefore, the power into the dummy will bounce back (rebound) into you, and now it is you that moves
The term emergency as it relates to Biu-Tze training is that our lives are in peril. The possible scenario of being unarmed and facing an armed attacker was not uncommon in the days of our ancestors, nor is it uncommon today. It does not automatically mean that you have to employ deadly force, and naturally we want to refrain from this
Using Chum-Kiu concepts, we pay particular attention to our turning and weight distribution. If we do not turn enough, we will be exposed to the attack, whereas turning too much will over-extend ourselves. We also learn the various ranges involved with fighting because you have to adjust your range according to what the opponent is doing
Instead, our focus lies in the relaxed, physical aspects of response and engagement, learning to overcome an opponent swiftly and efficiently. Internal elements result over time but they are not our primary concern; defeating the opponent as quickly as possible is the primary goal, and utilizing the concepts found in the Siu-Nim-Tau begins that process

​Over the course of time, we learn to overcome that rebound by reinforcing our adduction of the knees and linking the entire body as one structure. Throughout our dummy training, we learn to keep ourselves in place when this rebound occurs, and because of this, our power increases. In turn, this power releases more explosion of force. All of this creates short-range power that is efficient, explosive, and very difficult for our opponent to counter.

Over the course of time, we learn to overcome that rebound by reinforcing our adduction of the knees and linking the entire body as one structure. Throughout our dummy training, we learn to keep ourselves in place when this rebound occurs, and because of this, our power increases. In turn, this power releases more explosion of force. All of this creates short-range power that is efficient, explosive, and very difficult for our opponent to counter
But in the end, you do not get to pick-and-choose who, how, or when you will be attacked. And if you are unarmed and your attacker(s) are armed, you must do what needs to be done. You didn't choose it but you "do" have to respond to it. The Biu-Tze was created for this situation, and as a Japanese martial saying exclaims, “You will take them to the destruction they seek."

Live vs. Dead Dummy

​Many who are new to Wing Tsun will usually think that the present dummy is what was always around, but what you see today has only been around since the 1940’s. The wooden dummy’s look has been been altered over time, most probably originating during the Red Junk (Chinese boats) era of our history. It is said that practitioners fashioned holes in the side of the yardarms where the arms and leg could be inserted. But when training on dry ground, the dummy was inserted approximately two feet down.

Many who are new to Wing Tsun will usually think that the present dummy is what was always around, but what you see today has only been around since the 1940’s. The wooden dummy’s look has been been altered over time, most probably originating during the Red Junk (Chinese boats) era of our history. It is said that practitioners fashioned holes in the side of the yardarms where the arms and leg could be inserted. But when training on dry ground, the dummy was inserted approximately two feet down
Because of the nature of Biu-Tze and what it teaches, our ancestors designed a simple saying to stress the importance of this training: “Biu-Tze does not go out the door.” This means that not everyone was honored by learning it, and if you were fortunate enough to have learned it, do not let anyone else see you training it. Why?

​A “live” dummy is one which is mounted on the wall or a portable stand, whereas a “dead” dummy is one which is sunk into the floor or ground. Prior to Master Yip Man’s era, most dummies were dead dummies, and even a brief look at pre-Yip Man era photos will almost always show you a wooden dummy that is sunk into the floor.

A “live” dummy is one which is mounted on the wall or a portable stand, whereas a “dead” dummy is one which is sunk into the floor or ground. Prior to Master Yip Man’s era, most dummies were dead dummies, and even a brief look at pre-Yip Man era photos will almost always show you a wooden dummy that is sunk into the floor
As every student of Wing Tsun knows, every attack has a defense. Even those that seem to be undefendable by an opponent actually has a defense. And in many cases, the defense lies within the very form that the attack is in. With some actions, however, the Biu-Tze – the final empty-hand form – is where you will find the most advanced concepts of defense

​When Yip Man moved into his Hong Kong apartment, there was no where to sink a dummy into the floor. So as the story goes, one of his students fashioned the dummy to a wall-mounted frame. With this new mounting, there was also a type of give to the force being exerted since it would move slightly, and it was found that this type of mounting was actually preferable to the non-moving “dead” dummies.

When Yip Man moved into his Hong Kong apartment, there was no where to sink a dummy into the floor. So as the story goes, one of his students fashioned the dummy to a wall-mounted frame. With this new mounting, there was also a type of give to the force being exerted since it would move slightly, and it was found that this type of mounting was actually preferable to the non-moving “dead” dummies

​"​​​Having trained on both styles of dummies, I prefer the live dummies..."

Using Chum-Kiu concepts, we pay particular attention to our turning and weight distribution
our focus lies in the relaxed, physical aspects of response and engagement

​Is there a difference? Is one really better than the other? Yes, there is. Having trained on both styles of dummies, I prefer the live dummies because of the give and rebound you experience. Both have their pros and cons, though.

Is there a difference? Is one really better than the other? Yes, there is. Having trained on both styles of dummies, I prefer the live dummies because of the give and rebound you experience. Both have their pros and cons, though
The term emergency as it relates to Biu-Tze training is that our lives are in peril. The possible scenario of being unarmed and facing an armed attacker was not uncommon in the days of our ancestors, nor is it uncommon today. It does not automatically mean that you have to employ deadly force, and naturally we want to refrain from this
Using Chum-Kiu concepts, we pay particular attention to our turning and weight distribution. If we do not turn enough, we will be exposed to the attack, whereas turning too much will over-extend ourselves. We also learn the various ranges involved with fighting because you have to adjust your range according to what the opponent is doing
Instead, our focus lies in the relaxed, physical aspects of response and engagement, learning to overcome an opponent swiftly and efficiently. Internal elements result over time but they are not our primary concern; defeating the opponent as quickly as possible is the primary goal, and utilizing the concepts found in the Siu-Nim-Tau begins that process
The Biu-Tze is not just a collection of actions; instead, it is using attack as defense. And because of this, one schooled in its use can expediently defeat an otherwise undefeatable opponent. Therefore, “Biu-Tze does not go out the door” keeps this training protective for the use of Wing Tsun practitioners

​A dead dummy is non-moving, so even if you have a good command of your structure on a live dummy, the first time you experience a dead dummy will be eye-opening. I highly recommend that a practitioner at the wooden dummy level also acquire a dead dummy for even more force creation.

A dead dummy is non-moving, so even if you have a good command of your structure on a live dummy, the first time you experience a dead dummy will be eye-opening. I highly recommend that a practitioner at the wooden dummy level also acquire a dead dummy for even more force creation

Why Does Wooden Dummy Training Come "After" Empty-Hand Forms Training?

​Some view the wooden dummy as the height of empty-hand fighting, and you will see a variety of practitioners jumping into the dummy curriculum before they have completed the empty-hand curriculum.

Some view the wooden dummy as the height of empty-hand fighting, and you will see a variety of practitioners jumping into the dummy curriculum before they have completed the empty-hand curriculum

​That, however, is a mistake, and one that will greatly hinder their training vs. help it.

​The first half of the dummy includes a variety of concepts from the Siu-Nim-Tau and Chum-Kiu, whereas the last half of the dummy includes concepts from the Biu-Tze. A practitioner can train their current skill level on a dummy and glean a lot from it, but training the curriculum itself would be a mistake if they have not completed the Biu-Tze. While the dummy is an excellent teacher for learning more about Wing Tsun, it can also create a plethora of bad habits if a practitioner is not already at a particular level (a fact that we have seen repeatedly over the years).

The first half of the dummy includes a variety of concepts from the Siu-Nim-Tau and Chum-Kiu, whereas the last half of the dummy includes concepts from the Biu-Tze. A practitioner can train their current skill level on a dummy and glean a lot from it, but training the curriculum itself would be a mistake if they have not completed the Biu-Tze. While the dummy is an excellent teacher for learning more about Wing Tsun, it can also create a plethora of bad habits if a practitioner is not already at a particular level (a fact that we have seen repeatedly over the years)

​Remember that the wooden dummy comes after the empty-hand forms for a reason. Some will say it does not matter, but it does. If it did not really matter, then the dummy curriculum would come before something else, would it not?

Remember that the wooden dummy comes after the empty-hand forms for a reason. Some will say it does not matter, but it does. If it did not really matter, then the dummy curriculum would come before something else, would it not?

​True or False: The Dummy's Purpose Is To Build Up The Arms For Contact

​False. While regular training with the wooden dummy will condition your arms for contact, that is not its primary purpose. Its primary purpose lies in advanced training for uniting the upper and lower bodies to create one complete unit vs a collection of parts.

False. While regular training with the wooden dummy will condition your arms for contact, that is not its primary purpose. Its primary purpose lies in advanced training for uniting the upper and lower bodies to create one complete unit vs a collection of parts

​While many attributes result from this type of training, building up the arms for contact is not the primary purpose.

While many attributes result from this type of training, building up the arms for contact is not the primary purpose
In today’s world, however, there are very few secrets of Wing Tsun, so this particular saying does not have the same premise as it once did
A common yet effective tactic is that when the opponent kicks, we explode forward into them in order to decrease the range. Not only can this jam the kick, but it can also decrease the power that the kick can produce by shortening the length it has to travel. And with a decreased distance, it cannot produce the same amount of power
In combination, the centerline and straightline principles increase your reactions so much that our responses can become extremely fast. However, there is no mystery there. It is nothing more than simple body mechanics
The vertical midline separates the left and right halves of the body so that we can analyze what limbs would be appropriate for various attacks. This is assisted by working the Six Gates principle, in which the body is broken down into six separate areas. For example, gates 1 and 2 are for the right and left sides of the head, gates 3 and 4 cover the right and left sides of the trunk, and gates 5 and 6 cover the right and left sides of the lower body. With these areas being analyzed, we can quickly see what limbs would be more efficient to address any kind of attack we might encounter

​For More Information

​After completing the empty-hand forms, the next step on your path of progression is the wooden dummy. It is here that we expand as well as learn more advanced concepts for building a stronger foundation within an extremely tight working space. And nothing is better than Volume 5: Muk-Yan-Chong for taking you step-by-step through this remarkable training aid.

After completing the empty-hand forms, the next step on your path of progression is the wooden dummy. It is here that we expand as well as learn more advanced concepts for building a stronger foundation within an extremely tight working space. And nothing is better than Volume 5: Muk-Yan-Chong for taking you step-by-step through this remarkable training aid
The final empty-hand training of Wing Tsun is paramount for all practitioners, but it should never be trained until the first two curriculums are fully competent. If you are at this level, though, and you are ready for the next phase of training? Then Volume 4: Biu-Tze of the AWCA’s eBook Training Series is what you are looking for
The “bridge” between the Siu-Nim-Tau and Biu-Tze is the Chum-Kiu. It is here that we take our basic concepts learned during our Siu-Nim-Tau training and really make them mobile, efficient, fluid, and responsive. Not only do we learn kicking and elbow attacks/ defenses, but we also learn how to engage multiple opponents
If you are ready to explore what Wing Tsun is about, there is no better starting point than Volume 1: Siu-Nim-Tau of the AWCA's eBook Training Series

​This in-depth video-illustrated workbook takes you through the complete wooden dummy curriculum from start-to-finish, including the complete form, drills, applications, and concepts and theories, propelling your skill set to a brand new level.

This in-depth video-illustrated workbook takes you through the complete wooden dummy curriculum from start-to-finish, including the complete form, drills, applications, and concepts and theories, propelling your skill set to a brand new level
This in-depth video-illustrated workbook takes you through the complete Biu-Tze curriculum from start-to-finish, including the form, drills, applications, and concepts. A lot of questions exist as to “what’s what” where the Biu-Tze is concerned, and Volume 4 answers those questions by taking you step-by-step through this fascinating study of Wing Tsun training
If you have completed the Siu-Nim-Tau curriculum and you are looking for the next phase of training, then you're ready for Volume 2: Chum-Kiu of the AWCA’s eBook Training Series

Volume ​​5: Muk-Yan-Chong

Volume 5: Muk-Yan-Chong is a study of multiple proportions. Not only does it include an advanced curriculum, but it also allows you to train your Wing Tsun for short-range power, precision and uniting the upper and lower bodies.

Volume 5: Muk-Yan-Chong is a study of multiple proportions. Not only does it include an advanced curriculum, but it also allows you to train your Wing Tsun for short-range power, precision and uniting the upper and lower bodies

​You can find a variety of competent wooden dummy manufacturers or even build your own, but without the right path to train it, it will be of little to no use. Volume 5: Muk-Yan-Chong will lead you down that right path and take you through its intricate details.

You can find a variety of competent wooden dummy manufacturers or even build your own, but without the right path to train it, it will be of little to no use. Volume 5: Muk-Yan-Chong will lead you down that right path and take you through its intricate details
This in-depth video-illustrated workbook takes you through the complete Chum-Kiu curriculum, including the form, drills, applications, concepts and theories in a concise, progressive manner. You will also be tested at the end of each section to ensure that you understand the material and truly know it for when you need it
Volume 5: Muk-Yan-Chong
This in-depth workbook takes you through the complete Siu-Nim-Tau curriculum from start to finish. This one-of-a-kind training platform was built with true distance learning in mind and has already helped thousands of practitioners all over the world actually learn Wing Tsun

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