​Arizona Wing Chun Association

​Chi-sau

​Wing Tsun's "Sticking-hands" Training

Arizona Wing Chun Association

​Chi-sau, or Sticking-hands, is a training method unique to the Wing Tsun system in how it approaches the concept of fighting. ​A variety of arts utilize the method after seeing what it can accomplish, yet none outside of the system have captured its essence like Wing Tsun. But what is Chi-sau?​

A variety of arts utilize the method after seeing what it can accomplish, yet none outside of the system have captured its essence quite like Wing Tsun. But what is Chi-sau?
this form centers on the delivery of focused force into the opponent at extremely close ranges. Its use revolves around the delivery of permanent (sometimes fatal) injuries
this curriculum teaches us how to seek out the arms of the opponent and to “connect a bridge”. Once we connect to the opponent, we can immediately determine where the holes in his defense are
The first form of the Wing Tsun system is called Siu-Nim-Tau. Meaning Little-Idea, this form demonstrates basic but efficient concepts that provide a logical method. Regardless of the style, all Wing Tsun/Wing Chun/Ving Tsun methods will generally begin their teachings with the Siu-Nim-Tau

Chi-sau is a method of training the arms for sensitivity. Upon contact, the arms can sense the power, speed and direction of the opponent’s attack, thereby instantly countering. Since interpretation such as this is much faster than using the visual senses, this is why a Wing Tsun practitioner’s reactions are generally quite fast and explosive. It can, however, also lead a practitioner to use the wrong response if not completely yielding to his/her own force.

Chi-sau is a method of training the arms for sensitivity. Upon contact, the arms can sense the power, speed and direction of the opponent’s attack, thereby instantly countering. Since interpretation such as this is much faster than using the visual senses, this is why a Wing Tsun practitioner’s reactions are generally quite fast and explosive. It can, however, also lead a practitioner to use the wrong response if not completely yielding to his/her own force
Some schools teach that Biu-Tze’s “emergency” techniques were created to help you regain the centerline if you have lost it; however, this is incorrect. Why? Because we have already learned this principle in everything leading up to Biu-Tze
Beginning with the Siu-Nim-Tau, everything we do revolves around the centerline and how important it is for effective protection and attack. The Chum-Kiu expanded this further by teaching us varying angles and how to regain the centerline so as to place us in a more efficient position. This was reinforced even further through Chi-sau and Lap-sau, for anyone that loses the centerline will immediately tell you that you are in a bad situation
Because we now know where he is, we can take advantage of it and enact our own attacks, e.g. taking the fight to him vs. waiting for him to come to us
All Wing Tsun empty-hand forms are taught in three sections to make for easier learning. For the Siu-Nim-Tau, however, its three sections have a specific purpose and stress a unique function:
Some will train the Siu-Nim-Tau as internal while others will train it as external. At the AWCA, we train Wing Tsun solely from the mindset of fighting (what many denote as external). Elements of internal training will result, such as relaxation and smooth breathing, but we do not focus on the internal aspects as some others do

​"​​... in order to borrow the force of the opponent,we must get rid of our own force."

Using Chum-Kiu concepts, we pay particular attention to our turning and weight distribution
our focus lies in the relaxed, physical aspects of response and engagement

​​The basis of Chi-sau implies that in order to borrow the force of the opponent, we must get rid of our own force. “Getting rid of our own force” means learning to relax with the situation and teaching the body how to pivot correctly, maintain structure, and not rely on physical or brute force in our actions. If we train to use brute force, what happens if we meet an opponent who is physically stronger than us? Instead, we learn how to relax and we teach the arms to maintain their structure, as well as teaching the body as a whole how to be mobile in relation to what the arms are feeling.

This knowledge of the centerline is a prerequisite for learning the Biu-Tze vs. learning how to regain it. So at the AWCA, we follow the Yip Man concept that Biu-Tze is not for recovering the centerline; instead, it is for the delivery of permanent/fatal attacking actions
Using Chum-Kiu concepts, we pay particular attention to our turning and weight distribution. If we do not turn enough, we will be exposed to the attack, whereas turning too much will over-extend ourselves. We also learn the various ranges involved with fighting because you have to adjust your range according to what the opponent is doing
Instead, our focus lies in the relaxed, physical aspects of response and engagement, learning to overcome an opponent swiftly and efficiently. Internal elements result over time but they are not our primary concern; defeating the opponent as quickly as possible is the primary goal, and utilizing the concepts found in the Siu-Nim-Tau begins that process
Because of the nature of this curriculum and the concepts that it represents, the Biu-Tze is never taught to anyone that has not first demonstrated an extremely strong and upright moral character. Prior to utilizing any of these movements or employing its concepts, a practitioner must already have a refined force in which his/her power can lash out with a great deal of elasticity. Even the slightest stiffness or tension will create a hole in your defense, which is why you will hear that the movements from this particular form can actually get you hurt if you try to do them without being taught how to use them
In other words, the movements by themselves mean nothing. It is the concepts behind the movements and how they are being used that creates the effectiveness of Biu-Tze
Therefore, I must caution everyone that you should never employ these movements in a real situation unless you have been properly trained by a skilled and knowledgeable teacher. Not only can you create irreparable harm to someone if used inappropriately, but you can also get fatally injured yourself without knowing the why’s behind it. This is not a game. This is real life, and it is permanent
For example, the Siu-Nim-Tau teaches basic attacks and defenses as they relate to the punch/palm striking range. In Chum-Kiu, however, we have kicks, elbows, and even grappling and takedown range. Short of ground fighting, these are four complete ranges of fighting that are addressed in Chum-Kiu training
The interesting thing about Wing Tsun is that you will find many variations. The families, lineages, and styles have particular ways to train, as well as specific modes of that training in order to cultivate what they feel are the essential elements to their preferred methods. Some are more effective than others, but on the whole, you will usually find more similarities than differences

​Chi-dan-sau

Chi-dan-sau is Single-arm Sticking-hand. Also called Dan-Chi-sau, we learn one arm at a time so that we can focus on the feeling in a simple, controlled way.

Chi-dan-sau is Single-arm Sticking-hand. Also called Dan-Chi-sau, we learn one arm at a time so that we can focus on the feeling in a simple, controlled way
A practitioner can wedge into the opponent via angulation, thereby penetrating his or her defense and capitalizing on this close distance. An extremely competent Chum-Kiu is required before even thinking about learning Biu-Tze, which is why the Chum-Kiu is said to be the “bridge” between the Siu-Nim-Tau and the Biu-Tze
Section 1 of Chum-Kiu introduces a variety of concepts that deal with trapping, changing angles, using elbow attacks, and defending against multiple opponents
Chi-dan-sau

1. ​​Chi-dan-sau
​Single-arm Sticking-hand

​The starting position. Both practitioners are exerting a slight forward pressure. The practitioner on the right is in Fook-sau with the elbow pressing inward towards his centerline, while the practitioner on the left is in Tan-sau.

The starting position. Both practitioners are exerting a slight forward pressure. The practitioner on the right is in Fook-sau with the elbow pressing inward towards his centerline, while the practitioner on the left is in Tan-sau
Chi-dan-sau

​2. ​​Chi-dan-sau
​(continued)

​In response to Tan-sau changing to Jing-cheung, this is defended with a quick Jut-sau. The movements are gradual and are not aimed at striking; instead, they are gentle actions in order to teach each other how to feel the pressure and direction of the movements.

In response to Tan-sau changing to Jing-cheung, this is defended with a quick Jut-sau. The movements are gradual and are not aimed at striking; instead, they are gentle actions in order to teach each other how to feel the pressure and direction of the movements
Chi-dan-sau

​3. ​​Chi-dan-sau
​(continued)

​Jut-sau changes to Yat-chi-chung-kuen and is defended with Bong-sau. Again these are small movements that are not aimed at striking, but instead are geared solely to provide a bit of pressure in order to learn how to feel.

Jut-sau changes to Yat-chi-chung-kuen and is defended with Bong-sau. Again these are small movements that are not aimed at striking, but instead are geared solely to provide a bit of pressure in order to learn how to feel
Chi-dan-sau

​4. ​​Chi-dan-sau
​(continued)

​Both return to their original positions and repeat Chi-dan-sau over and over until the arms are fluidly responding.

Both return to their original positions and repeat Chi-dan-sau over and over until the arms are fluidly responding

This exercise teaches the basics of learning to feel pressure and direction of an opponent’s arm. This pressure stems from the wrist being used as a guide and the elbow providing the force. Concepts of the centerline, straightline, and mechanics of the arm are heavily explored so that in the end, a practitioner simply responds without having to think about it. The action just happens without pre-determined thought, much in the way you drive your car.

This exercise teaches the basics of learning to feel pressure and direction of an opponent’s arm. This pressure stems from the wrist being used as a guide and the elbow providing the force. Concepts of the centerline, straightline, and mechanics of the arm are heavily explored so that in the end, a practitioner simply responds without having to think about it. The action just happens without pre-determined thought, much in the way you drive your car

If you think about the step-by-step action that goes into simply driving a vehicle:

  • ​Go to the vehicle
  • ​Take out your keys
  • ​Find the right key
  • ​Put the key into the door lock
  • ​Tun the key
  • ​Grab the door handle
  • ​Pull on the handle
  • ​Open the door
  • ​Sit down in the seat
  • ​Put the key in the ignition
  • ​Turn the key...
If you think about the step-by-step action that goes into simply driving a vehicle:

​You get the idea.

With fighting, many of the same elements exist, which is why sometimes a very good fighter can easily lose if he attempts to think about what to do vs. simply doing it. There are too many things happening simultaneously, so Chi-sau removes that element by teaching the arms what, how and when to do it, solely through the contact that they meet.

With fighting, many of the same elements exist, which is why sometimes a very good fighter can easily lose if he attempts to think about what to do vs. simply doing it. There are too many things happening simultaneously, so Chi-sau removes that element by teaching the arms what, how and when to do it, solely through the contact that they meet

After each arm is sufficiently trained, stepping is introduced. Not only does this increase and decrease the arm angle, it begins the process of teaching the body what to do with that force (or loss of force, depending on the situation). It also teaches us how to maintain contact with the opponent, since that is what Chi-sau is.

After each arm is sufficiently trained, stepping is introduced. Not only does this increase and decrease the arm angle, it begins the process of teaching the body what to do with that force (or loss of force, depending on the situation). It also teaches us how to maintain contact with the opponent, since that is what Chi-sau is

A common Wing Tsun motto proclaims “Stay with what comes, follow through as it retreats, and spring forward as our hand is freed.” Chi-sau training not only encompasses this philosophy, but relies on it.

A common Wing Tsun motto proclaims “Stay with what comes, follow through as it retreats, and spring forward as our hand is freed.” Chi-sau training not only encompasses this philosophy, but relies on it

Luk-sau

Section 1 begins by learning how to lower one’s center of gravity from the chest to the waist. Called Hoi-ma, or Opening the Stance, this basic but primary element is one of the reasons we can take an opponent head-on. Should too much force be encountered and we are overpowered by brute strength, the structure itself allows us to “borrow” that force and re-direct or deflect it
A variety of drills can be created exclusively from section 1. To illustrate a bit about what the Siu-Nim-Tau teaches us, let's explore a few drills that begins the foundation of Wing Tsun

After each arm is individually trained, we now progress to using both arms simultaneously. There are a few different terms for this, depending on the force being used and the exercise being worked.

After each arm is individually trained, we now progress to using both arms simultaneously. There are a few different terms for this, depending on the force being used and the exercise being worked

Chi-sheung-sau, or Double-arm Sticking-hands (also called Sheung-Chi-sau) is the primary term used to denote two arms sticking to the opponent’s arms. The rolling action itself is Poon-sau, or Rolling-arms, while Luk-sau is Rolling-arms with Forward Pressure​.

Chi-sheung-sau, or Double-arm Sticking-hands (also called Sheung-Chi-sau) is the primary term used to denote two arms sticking to the opponent’s arms. The rolling action itself is Poon-sau, or Rolling-arms, while rolling with forward pressure is called Luk-sau

It is Luk-sau that is most commonly seen and how we will term Chi-sau when relating this section.

It is Luk-sau that is most commonly seen and how we will term Chi-sau when relating this section
It has been said that the Biu-Tze’s purpose is the employment of deadly force, and I feel that it is important to clarify this statement further
A Wing Tsun practitioner is trained in a variety of concepts to appropriately and effectively deal with either one or multiple opponents, as well as fighting in all ranges. If that is true, then why would a concept such as Biu-Tze even be necessary? What would be happening to make such a lethal form of training relevant?
There are three primary punches in Wing Tsun, with Yat-chi-chung-kuen, or Character "Sun" Thrusting punch (commonly called the Straightline punch), being the most prevalent. If you close your hand to make a vertical fist, and then look at the front of it in a mirror, it resembles the Chinese character for sun
Luk-sau

1. ​​Luk-sau
​Double Rolling-arms with Forward Pressure

​The starting position. One practitioner is in Tan-sau while the other is in Bong-sau. Both, however, also have a Fook-sau position. The arms are positioned wrist-over-wrist vs. side-by-side.

The starting position. One practitioner is in Tan-sau while the other is in Bong-sau. Both, however, also have a Fook-sau position. The arms are positioned wrist-over-wrist vs. side-by-side
Luk-sau

​2. ​​Luk-sau
​(continued)

​As the arms roll...

the attacker launches a Kup-jarn attack. Kup-jarn is defended with Pak-sau and Ming-tou-sau
... he comes into kick range. The defender lifts the leg directly upward vs. chambering, and...
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
Luk-sau

​3. ​​Luk-sau
​(continued)

​... they now change from Tan-sau to Bong-sau, and from Bong-sau to Tan-sau. Fook-sau for both remains unchanged.

... they now change from Tan-sau to Bong-sau, and from Bong-sau to Tan-sau. Fook-sau for both remains unchanged

​During the rolling, a slight forward pressure is always being exerted. Additionally, Fook-sau’s elbow is always being pressed towards the vertical midline.

During the rolling, a slight forward pressure is always being exerted. Additionally, Fook-sau’s elbow is always being pressed towards the vertical midline
the attacker launches a Kup-jarn attack. Kup-jarn is defended with Pak-sau and Ming-tou-sau
... he comes into kick range. The defender lifts the leg directly upward vs. chambering, and...
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
Luk-sau

​4. ​​Luk-sau
​(continued)

​The arms begin to roll back...

the attacker launches a Kup-jarn attack. Kup-jarn is defended with Pak-sau and Ming-tou-sau
... he comes into kick range. The defender lifts the leg directly upward vs. chambering, and...
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
Luk-sau

​​5. ​​Luk-sau
​(continued)

​... and return to the starting position. This sequences rolls over and over until the arms are fluid, the shoulders remain relaxed throughout, and the forward pressure remains constant through each nuance of the roll.

... and return to the starting position. This sequences rolls over and over until the arms are fluid, the shoulders remain relaxed throughout, and the forward pressure remains constant through each nuance of the roll

​A practitioner will spend a great deal of time in Luk-sau developing the correct structure and feeling before proceeding to the Chi-sau attack/defense sequences.

A practitioner will spend a great deal of time in Luk-sau developing the correct structure and feeling before proceeding to the Chi-sau attack/defense sequences
the attacker launches a Kup-jarn attack. Kup-jarn is defended with Pak-sau and Ming-tou-sau
... he comes into kick range. The defender lifts the leg directly upward vs. chambering, and...
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
Ching-sun-gerk, or Front Thrusting-kick, can be employed at various heights, but its primary height is usually the waist. When you can kick with full power and at a parallel height (when your leg is parallel to the floor), then all kicks lower than that will generally see a great deal more power being released

Not all lineages train the Chi-sau curriculum in the same sequence, but most will eventually cover the same material. The AWCA continues to pass on what was taught to us, which is Chi-dan-sau, full competence and correctness in Luk-sau, and the progressing to the Chi-sau sections.

Not all lineages train the Chi-sau curriculum in the same sequence, but most will eventually cover the same material. The AWCA continues to pass on what was taught to us, which is Chi-dan-sau, full competence and correctness in Luk-sau, and the progressing to the Chi-sau sections
So what would be happening to make such a lethal form of training necessary? The answer is simple. There is no way for us to know what situation we might find ourselves in. In most cases, we will simply walk away, which is always the best course of action for any situation. Sometimes, however, that is not possible
Today’s attackers are armed cowards running in gangs. Because they have no morals or standards by which an upright human being lives, they live by a code of cowardice, arming themselves to take advantage of the weak

As mentioned, Chi-sheung-sau includes two beginning stages called Poon-sau (Rolling-arms) and Luk-sau (Rolling-arms with forward energy). A practitioner will first learn the correct mechanics for working both arms simultaneously (Poon-sau), and once competent, forward pressure will be applied (Luk-sau) to begin the actual curriculum of interpreting attacks at various levels.

​"​​​... the​se levels take a practitioner's training to full use for realistic self-defense."

Using Chum-Kiu concepts, we pay particular attention to our turning and weight distribution
our focus lies in the relaxed, physical aspects of response and engagement

Beyond Poon-sau and Luk-sau, there are three stages of incorporating real-world fighting practice, these being Nuk-sau, Gor-sau, and Kuo-sau. From basic attacks and defenses to full-scale Chi-sau sparring, these levels take a practitioner’s training to full use for realistic self-defense.

Beyond Poon-sau and Luk-sau, there are three stages of incorporating real-world fighting practice, these being Nuk-sau, Gor-sau, and Kuo-sau. From basic attacks and defenses to full-scale Chi-sau sparring, these levels take a practitioner’s training to full use for realistic self-defense
The Biu-Tze requires elastic force in which to explode into these movements so as to render the attacker immediately injured, while also taking into account the ever-changing positions of their armed friends
Using Chum-Kiu concepts, we pay particular attention to our turning and weight distribution. If we do not turn enough, we will be exposed to the attack, whereas turning too much will over-extend ourselves. We also learn the various ranges involved with fighting because you have to adjust your range according to what the opponent is doing
Instead, our focus lies in the relaxed, physical aspects of response and engagement, learning to overcome an opponent swiftly and efficiently. Internal elements result over time but they are not our primary concern; defeating the opponent as quickly as possible is the primary goal, and utilizing the concepts found in the Siu-Nim-Tau begins that process

It is important to develop a proper and stable structure in Luk-sau, including stepping and basic attacks/defenses, before progressing to the Chi-sau sections. If approached too soon, many bad habits will result, and these bad habits will see you getting hit repeatedly.

It is important to develop a proper and stable structure in Luk-sau, including stepping and basic attacks/defenses, before progressing to the Chi-sau sections. If approached too soon, many bad habits will result, and these bad habits will see you getting hit repeatedly

Remember that this is not a race. It is all about working everything in the proper order so as to logically progress your skills for creating a reliable skill set that you can count on when/if needed.

Lower-level kicks are usually the norm in Wing Tsun, mainly because it is more difficult for the opponent to see. And if it is harder to see, then it is harder to defend against. The problem, however, is that many practitioners do not train their full power at a parallel level, which in turn sees a great deal of power lost that they can achieve
Therefore, always train this kick in the forms to be full power and parallel to the floor

​Section 1

At the AWCA, we teach seven primary sections of learning derived from the Siu-Nim-Tau and Chum-Kiu curriculums. Following this, we have Biu-Tze Chi-sau, as well as Chi-kwun, or Pole-clinging, for the long pole.

At the AWCA, we teach seven primary sections of learning derived from the Siu-Nim-Tau and Chum-Kiu curriculums. Following this, we have Biu-Tze Chi-sau, as well as Chi-kwun, or Pole-clinging, for the long pole

By no means are these seven sections all-encompassing for every facet that Chi-sau embodies. Instead, it is merely the main stages of learning in which to expand from. I do not know if it would even be possible to list or illustrate every single movement and/or counter-movement within the scope of Chi-sau. Minute changes can make one action take a completely different course, which in turn creates another possibility.

By no means are these seven sections all-encompassing for every facet that Chi-sau embodies. Instead, it is merely the main stages of learning in which to expand from. I do not know if it would even be possible to list or illustrate every single movement and/or counter-movement within the scope of Chi-sau. Minute changes can make one action take a completely different course, which in turn creates another possibility

​Therefore, there are times when the protection of self from literal life and death situations could become a reality. And in these cases, this is what the Biu-Tze was designed to accomplish.

Therefore, there are times when the protection of self from literal life and death situations could become a reality. And in these cases, this is what the Biu-Tze was designed to accomplish
In addition to single opponents, Wing Tsun also includes kicking methods for dealing with multiple opponents. We do not get to pick and choose how many will attack us, so Wang-chang-gerk allows us to respond to opponents approaching from the side
Chi-sau Section 1 Attack

1. ​​Chi-sau Section 1 Attack

​From the Luk-sau rolling, the attacker initiates Sheung Lap-sau, or Double Grabbing-hands. The timing must be precise because any change can be immediately felt by the opponent.

From the Luk-sau rolling, the attacker initiates Sheung Lap-sau, or Double Grabbing-hands. The timing must be precise because any change can be immediately felt by the opponent

​As the arms initiate the grab...

Biu-Tze-sau is also called Biu-sau or Bil-sao by some
In this drill, the practitioner is first defending against an opponent to the front when he sees another attacker coming in from the side
Chi-sau Section 1 Attack

​2. ​​Chi-sau Section 1 Attack
​(continued)

​... the attacker utilizes Chuen-ma to turn the body while pulling the opponent off-balance. Do not pull towards you; rather, envision that you are “throwing away” the arms in order to open a hole in the opponent’s defense.

... the attacker utilizes Chuen-ma to turn the body while pulling the opponent off-balance. Do not pull towards you; rather, envision that you are “throwing away” the arms in order to open a hole in the opponent’s defense
Biu-Tze-sau changes to either Fook-sau or Lap-sau (both are acceptable) while the other hand explodes with Chang-sau to the underside of the attacker’s jaw
Before the attacker gets into punching range, the defender raises Lan-sau to defend the incoming punch while simultaneously raising the leg for a kick
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
Chi-sau Section 1 Attack

​3. ​​Chi-sau Section 1 Attack
​(continued)

​While turning, the outside Lap-sau quickly drives up the arm just above the elbow via Pak-sau. If below the elbow (closer to the wrist), you will eat an elbow to the face.

While turning, the outside Lap-sau quickly drives up the arm just above the elbow via Pak-sau. If below the elbow (closer to the wrist), you will eat an elbow to the face
Biu-Tze-sau changes to either Fook-sau or Lap-sau (both are acceptable) while the other hand explodes with Chang-sau to the underside of the attacker’s jaw
Before the attacker gets into punching range, the defender raises Lan-sau to defend the incoming punch while simultaneously raising the leg for a kick
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
Chi-sau Section 1 Attack

​4. ​​Chi-sau Section 1 Attack
​(continued)

​Pressing with Pak-sau and you move forward, the other Lap-sau changes to Jing-cheung and slams into the opponent’s stomach.

Pressing with Pak-sau and you move forward, the other Lap-sau changes to Jing-cheung and slams into the opponent’s stomach
Biu-Tze-sau changes to either Fook-sau or Lap-sau (both are acceptable) while the other hand explodes with Chang-sau to the underside of the attacker’s jaw
Before the attacker gets into punching range, the defender raises Lan-sau to defend the incoming punch while simultaneously raising the leg for a kick
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide

The defense teaches us to relax when pulled and to create an elastic response in order to blast back into them.

The defense teaches us to relax when pulled and to create an elastic response in order to blast back into them
Equally important is the moment, which can change from situation to situation. The environment, your physical condition at that time, even your emotional state. These and many other areas all play a part in how you will fair at the time your skills are needed. And this is the mindset that a Wing Tsun practitioner will address in his or her daily training
Tan-dar, Fook-dar and Gaun-dar are some of the easier movements to integrate with Yat-chi-chung-kuen. These actions address defense against straight punches, hook punches, and low punches
Chi-sau Section 1 Defense

1. ​​Chi-sau Section 1 Defense

​As the attacker initiates Sheung Lap-sau, the defender relaxes his upper body so as to create a whip-type of effect. Adduction of the knees keeps you grounded vs getting pulled off balance.

As the attacker initiates Sheung Lap-sau, the defender relaxes his upper body so as to create a whip-type of effect. Adduction of the knees keeps you grounded vs getting pulled off balance
As the attacker launches a punch, it is defended with Bong-sau
As the attacker approaches, the defender is in fist range. The lead leg, however, is also in range for a Jamming-kick/Stop-kick to the attacker’s leg
Chi-sau Section 1 Defense

​2. ​Chi-sau Section 1 Defense
​(continued)

​As the attacker comes in, the defender immediately turns back to him with one arm in Jut-sau and one arm in Bong-sau. An alternative is to respond with both arms in Jut-sau.

As the attacker comes in, the defender immediately turns back to him with one arm in Jut-sau and one arm in Bong-sau. An alternative is to respond with both arms in Jut-sau
Wu-sau changes to Lap-sau in order to provide a barrier for control while Bong-sau quickly swings above the attacker’s arm
As the attacker steps into range, the defender raises the lead leg and...
... the attacker launches a straight punch. The defender's Man-sau meets the attack and transitions to Tan-sau. As he turns, the other fist launches a punch...
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide
Chi-sau Section 1 Defense

​​3. ​Chi-sau Section 1 Defense
​(continued)

​Jut-sau changes to Yan-cheung in order to stamp down and trap the opponent’s arms, while the other hand changes to Chau-chong-kuen.

Jut-sau changes to Yan-cheung in order to stamp down and trap the opponent’s arms, while the other hand changes to Chau-chong-kuen
Wu-sau changes to Lap-sau in order to provide a barrier for control while Bong-sau quickly swings above the attacker’s arm
As the attacker steps into range, the defender raises the lead leg and...
... the attacker launches a straight punch. The defender's Man-sau meets the attack and transitions to Tan-sau. As he turns, the other fist launches a punch...
As the rear first begins moving forward, the lead arm drops just enough to clear the path so that they do not collide

​Throughout the training of these core elements, a practitioner is taught the concept behind what is happening, and from there, he/she will easily discover for themselves other possibilities. The real problem is that when someone learns something, they consider it etched in stone, and anything that deviates from that would be wrong.

Throughout the training of these core elements, a practitioner is taught the concept behind what is happening, and from there, he/she will easily discover for themselves other possibilities. The real problem is that when someone learns something, they consider it etched in stone, and anything that deviates from that would be wrong
During the creation of Wing Tsun, it was not so uncommon that a situation could turn into a life-or-death event. The founders of the system realized that there were, in fact, times when a practitioner would simply have no choice but to inflict fatal injury in order to survive

​Sadly, these kinds of practitioners miss the point.

Sadly, these kinds of practitioners miss the point
Ergo, the Biu-Tze

​It is not about the amount of movements or counter-movements there are; instead, it is all about if you can really use what you have learned when you need to use it. Without that, knowing every movement in the world will do you no good when you have to actually defend yourself.

It is not about the amount of movements or counter-movements there are; instead, it is all about if you can really use what you have learned when you need to use it. Without that, knowing every movement in the world will do you no good when you have to actually defend yourself

​Think of Chi-sau like a high-speed game of chess. One wrong move will find you in dire straights. It all comes down to pressure, relaxation, and being able to take advantage of what you are feeling, when you are feeling it.

Think of Chi-sau like a high-speed game of chess. One wrong move will find you in dire straights. It all comes down to pressure, relaxation, and being able to take advantage of what you are feeling, when you are feeling it
There are many practitioners around the world that periodically face these situations in today’s society, so the Biu-Tze continues to be a reliable response. These events involve not only multiple attackers, but multiple armed attackers. It must be understood, however, that the Biu-Tze is never taught to anyone who hasn’t first demonstrated an extremely strong moral character. It said that some practitioners have gone their entire lives and never learned this form or the concepts that it teaches
In addition to kicks, brutal elbow attacks are a mainstay of Chum-Kiu. Pie-jarn, or Horizontal Hacking-elbow, is one of the most frequently used of all Wing Tsun elbow attacks
While attacks like this may seem brutal, remember that Wing Tsun is strictly for fighting vs. rules-based sports. It is not flashy, showy, and there are no rules. You have been attacked, you are fighting for your life, and all targets are an option
A variety of today’s exercise routines include boxing, kickboxing, and other similar actions. These programs will usually tell you that in addition to improving your fitness, you are also creating a valuable self-defense skill set, something that you could use in real life for protection if you had to
I am not going to say that you are not learning something about self-defense, because clearly you are. The body is replicating the actions of movements you would use for defending yourself, and these can be valuable elements if you find yourself in a self-defense situation
I have also read/heard stories of some who were able to protect themselves only with the skills they learned from their kickboxing-oriented fitness programs. Whether true or not, I can see the relevance and have no reason to doubt it
Fighting and exercising are two different things. Yes, you are improving your fitness, and yes, you are learning the mechanics of basic self-defense actions. Remember, though, that real self-defense and exercising are not the same thing. There is more to reliable self-defense than merely going through the motions, and that is a primary concept we learn in the Chum-Kiu
Please do not create a false sense of security by relying on your fitness program to teach you about real protection. I personally love fitness programs that include boxing and/or kickboxing because they generate more movement that relates better to overall conditioning. However, these fitness programs will not stop a 250-lb. enraged attacker bent on drilling you into the ground
But Wing Tsun will
Many have asked how Wing Tsun might respond to other martial arts, so below is an example of this. Note, however, that the key word here is might
In a real fight, anything can and usually does happen. I have a love of all martial arts and this is not to degrade these other methods. On the contrary, it is merely a look at possible Wing Tsun responses to the more commonly-used actions of a few different fighting methods
Gaun-dar, or Splitting Block-arm with Simultaneous Attack, is like an axe splitting wood, hence the name. Wing Tsun does not have blocks; instead, our blocks are actually attacks to the limb they are meeting. In this way, we counter-attack while defending
After learning the first section of Siu-Nim-Tau and exploring the variety of concepts, we can take these movements and blend them together to create our own drills/scenarios as necessary. This teaches us not to be stagnant or always training the same drills over and over without change
To begin this process, we work what is called the Lead-arm Defense Drill. This drill is just one of many variations that frees us up by changing from side-to-side while simultaneously working the arms. We also learn more control of the lower body and how to pivot ourselves in order to borrow the force of the attacker
An excellent real-world drill that you can work with your training partner right now is called the Pak-sau drill. This drill teaches coordination, learning to make contact, feeling what that pressure is about, and how to better protect your centerline. It also puts into motion the concept of working both hands at the same time so that you can enact simultaneous attack and defense
The Pak-sau drill is so important to Wing Tsun that our entire Lat-sau fighting curriculum begins with it. From driving in, down, around, adding kicks, elbows, knees, and any other action you can think, Pak-sau easily and quickly transitions to effective and efficient counter-attacks

Drills & Applications

The Chum-Kiu revolves around seeking out the opponent, and once found, we sink or leak through his/her defenses in order to attack. The most relevant areas of this training includes concepts for angling and turning in order to make the most of the space we have, which in turn allows us to address multiple opponents
Wing Tsun is concept-based vs. application-based, meaning that the movements themselves can only take you so far. They are excellent movements, for certain; however, they are still only mechanical actions. What really makes Wing Tsun so effective is how and why the movements are applied

A great deal of time is devoted to learning the elements of Chi-sau and how it relates to our fight training. Below are a few sessions of Chi-sau training to illustrate various sessions we experience and work in. Remember that these are only examples of learning to feel the direction and pressure of an attack. Chi-sau and all-out fight training are two very different things.

A great deal of time is devoted to learning the elements of Chi-sau and how it relates to our fight training. Below are a few sessions of Chi-sau training to illustrate various sessions we experience and work in. Remember that these are only examples of learning to feel the direction and pressure of an attack. Chi-sau and all-out fight training are two very different things
The term emergency is, for some, a confusing issue. Some feel that it relates to the situation of if we lose our centerline, we are in danger of losing the fight. Therefore we must employ emergency techniques in order to regain it. Others, however, feel that the term emergency relates to a life-or-death situation, such as the premise of us being unarmed and our attackers are armed
The Chum-Kiu is also where Wing Tsun’s three primary kicking methods – Ching-sun-gerk, Wang-chang-gerk and Che-chang-gerk – are introduced. With these three kicks, we now learn to respond to leg attacks with our own legs vs. using the arms. An interesting facet, however, is that even with the kicks, we also learn that in many cases, responding to the opponent’s kick is sometimes not even necessary
For example, think about how many martial arts are in existence. Now, think about how many ways the human body can move. With the hundreds of systems and styles in the world, a person can still only do so many things

​Note: A variety of new and more detailed Chi-sau videos have already been filmed and are currently being edited for posting. They will be available here shortly.

Note: A variety of new and more detailed Chi-sau videos have already been filmed and are currently being edited for posting. They will be available here shortly

​Concepts & Theories

Entire volumes could be written on what Chi-sau is about and how it works, but at a basic level, the entire premise of this training is to teach your arms what to do when contact with the opponent is made. Taking things step-by-step, we start with single-arm training, progress to double-arm training, and then advance to various core elements in order to learn the pressure and angle of attacks.

Entire volumes could be written on what Chi-sau is about and how it works, but at a basic level, the entire premise of this training is to teach your arms what to do when contact with the opponent is made. Taking things step-by-step, we start with single-arm training, progress to double-arm training, and then advance to various core elements in order to learn the pressure and angle of attacks

Following this, the bulk of things are freed up so that we replicate fighting practice. The goal here is to always focus on feeling what is happening and responding to it vs getting in the hit. Yes, hitting is important; after all, that is why we train. However, when that becomes the primary goal, it will usually see the practitioner in a bad position when posed with someone that is keeping a good structure.

Following this, the bulk of things are freed up so that we replicate fighting practice. The goal here is to always focus on feeling what is happening and responding to it vs getting in the hit. Yes, hitting is important; after all, that is why we train. However, when that becomes the primary goal, it will usually see the practitioner in a bad position when posed with someone that is keeping a good structure

With Chi-sau training, both good position and feeling will guide him/her through the holes in the opponent’s defense, leading them into the hit.

With Chi-sau training, both good position and feeling will guide him/her through the holes in the opponent’s defense, leading them into the hit
The AWCA continues to teach what was passed to us, and we were taught that the term emergency relates to the latter
For example, the Siu-Nim-Tau and Chum-Kiu curriculums have expounded heavily on the concept of the centerline. In order to even begin learning the Biu-Tze, a great deal of competence must already be present. And part of this competence is that the centerline is paramount to everything we do
But in the end, you do not get to pick-and-choose who, how, or when you will be attacked. And if you are unarmed and your attacker(s) are armed, you must do what needs to be done. You didn't choose it but you "do" have to respond to it. The Biu-Tze was created for this situation, and as a Japanese martial saying exclaims, “You will take them to the destruction they seek."
Because of the nature of Biu-Tze and what it teaches, our ancestors designed a simple saying to stress the importance of this training: “Biu-Tze does not go out the door.” This means that not everyone was honored by learning it, and if you were fortunate enough to have learned it, do not let anyone else see you training it. Why?
As every student of Wing Tsun knows, every attack has a defense. Even those that seem to be undefendable by an opponent actually has a defense. And in many cases, the defense lies within the very form that the attack is in. With some actions, however, the Biu-Tze – the final empty-hand form – is where you will find the most advanced concepts of defense
The Biu-Tze is not just a collection of actions; instead, it is using attack as defense. And because of this, one schooled in its use can expediently defeat an otherwise undefeatable opponent. Therefore, “Biu-Tze does not go out the door” keeps this training protective for the use of Wing Tsun practitioners
In today’s world, however, there are very few secrets of Wing Tsun, so this particular saying does not have the same premise as it once did
A common yet effective tactic is that when the opponent kicks, we explode forward into them in order to decrease the range. Not only can this jam the kick, but it can also decrease the power that the kick can produce by shortening the length it has to travel. And with a decreased distance, it cannot produce the same amount of power
In combination, the centerline and straightline principles increase your reactions so much that our responses can become extremely fast. However, there is no mystery there. It is nothing more than simple body mechanics
The vertical midline separates the left and right halves of the body so that we can analyze what limbs would be appropriate for various attacks. This is assisted by working the Six Gates principle, in which the body is broken down into six separate areas. For example, gates 1 and 2 are for the right and left sides of the head, gates 3 and 4 cover the right and left sides of the trunk, and gates 5 and 6 cover the right and left sides of the lower body. With these areas being analyzed, we can quickly see what limbs would be more efficient to address any kind of attack we might encounter

​For More Information

From single-arm to double-arm, the world of Chi-sau is one of the most fascinating studies of martial arts that you will ever find. Instead of seeing an action, thinking about what to do for it, and then initiating a counter-action, Chi-sau teaches us to make contact and instantly respond, leaving the middle man of thinking out of it.

From single-arm to double-arm, the world of Chi-sau is one of the most fascinating studies of martial arts that you will ever find. Instead of seeing an action, thinking about what to do for it, and then initiating a counter-action, Chi-sau teaches us to make contact and instantly respond, leaving the middle man of thinking out of it
The final empty-hand training of Wing Tsun is paramount for all practitioners, but it should never be trained until the first two curriculums are fully competent. If you are at this level, though, and you are ready for the next phase of training? Then Volume 4: Biu-Tze of the AWCA’s eBook Training Series is what you are looking for
The “bridge” between the Siu-Nim-Tau and Biu-Tze is the Chum-Kiu. It is here that we take our basic concepts learned during our Siu-Nim-Tau training and really make them mobile, efficient, fluid, and responsive. Not only do we learn kicking and elbow attacks/ defenses, but we also learn how to engage multiple opponents
If you are ready to explore what Wing Tsun is about, there is no better starting point than Volume 1: Siu-Nim-Tau of the AWCA's eBook Training Series

And if you are ready to explore what Chi-sau can do for you, then Volume 3: Chi-sau is waiting.

And if you are ready to explore what Chi-sau can do for you, then Volume 3: Chi-sau is waiting
This in-depth video-illustrated workbook takes you through the complete Biu-Tze curriculum from start-to-finish, including the form, drills, applications, and concepts. A lot of questions exist as to “what’s what” where the Biu-Tze is concerned, and Volume 4 answers those questions by taking you step-by-step through this fascinating study of Wing Tsun training
If you have completed the Siu-Nim-Tau curriculum and you are looking for the next phase of training, then you're ready for Volume 2: Chum-Kiu of the AWCA’s eBook Training Series

Volume ​​3: Chi-sau

​This four-part set of in-depth video-illustrated workbooks takes you through each phase of Siu-Nim-Tau and Chum-Kiu Chi-sau, culminating with learning the ins-and-outs of how to apply the Chi-sau concept to your fight training. Look all you want at other Internet sites but you will not find a training medium that even comes close to what Volume 3 delivers.

This four-part set of in-depth video-illustrated workbooks takes you through each phase of Siu-Nim-Tau and Chum-Kiu Chi-sau, culminating with learning the ins-and-outs of how to apply the Chi-sau concept to your fight training. Look all you want at other Internet sites but you will not find a training medium that even comes close to what Volume 3 delivers

This one-of-a-kind training platform was built with true learning in mind vs. merely reading about it, and it has already helped thousands of practitioners all over the world discover the reality of what Chi-sau affords.

This one-of-a-kind training platform was built with true learning in mind vs. merely reading about it, and it has already helped thousands of practitioners all over the world discover the reality of what Chi-sau affords
This in-depth video-illustrated workbook takes you through the complete Chum-Kiu curriculum, including the form, drills, applications, concepts and theories in a concise, progressive manner. You will also be tested at the end of each section to ensure that you understand the material and truly know it for when you need it
Volume 3: Chi-sau
This in-depth workbook takes you through the complete Siu-Nim-Tau curriculum from start to finish. This one-of-a-kind training platform was built with true distance learning in mind and has already helped thousands of practitioners all over the world actually learn Wing Tsun

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